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Sustainable improvement of food safety in developing countries

In developing countries, most foods are marketed through informal food chains. Until recently, international aids focused on formal food chains, and on improving productivity of smallholder producers without considering the access to markets. It has been difficult to make significant impacts on such smallholder producers by this approach because the access to well-paid formal market is limited. Moreover, safety of informally-marketed foods, in which majority of people in developing countries appreciates affordability, rather than quality, had never been achieved.<br />
In order to solve this problem, international agricultural researches are shifting to focus on value chain (VC); intervention projects to improve safety of foods produced by smallholder farmers and to pull the products to formal value chain at the affordable price, considering food safety risks, economics and traditions. The Veterinary Epidemiology Unit has conducted collaborative researches together with the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) in eight sub-Saharan African countries and currently is conducting in Vietnam and Kenya.

Research funding

2017-2018‘Quantitative assessment of risk for salmonellosis through pork consumption and effective control in Vietnam’ JSPS RONPAKU (Dissertation PhD) Program for FY2017, PhD candidate: Mr. Sinh Dang-Xuan. PI.
2012-2017ACIAR Reducing disease risks and improving food safety in smallholder pig value chains in Vietnam (PigRisk). Co-PI.
http://pigrisk.wikispaces.com/
2017-ACIAR Safe Pork project. Co-PI.
2016-World Bank Food Safety Risk Assessment Task Force in Vietnam. Resource person.
2014-2015JISNAS - JICA/JOCV Volunteer/ PhD study on controlling brucellosis. Mr. Shingo Asakura. Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania.

Performance

Peer review paper

Makita K, Mahundi E, Toyomaki H, Ishihara K, Sanka P, Kaaya EJ, Grace D, Kurwijila LR. 2017. Risk assessment of campylobacteriosis due to consumption of roast beef served in beer bars in Arusha, Tanzania. Journal of Veterinary Epidemiology 21(1)

Kono H, Kubota S, Senbokuya Y, Makita K, Nishida T, Tran MH. 2017 Animal insurance and farmer's behavior in Vietnam. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology 16(2): 1-12.

Yokozawa T, Dang-Xuan S, Lapar L, Makita K. 2016. Transition of Salmonella prevalence in pork value chain from pig slaughterhouses to markets in Hung Yen, Vietnam. Journal of Veterinary Epidemiology 20(1): 51-8.

Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Grace D, Makita K, Mtimet N, Kang’ethe EK, Lindahl, JF. 2016. Aflatoxin B1 occurrence in millet, sorghum and maize from four agro-ecological zones in Kenya. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development (AJFAND) 16(3): 10991-11003.

Kirino Y, Makita K, Grace D, Lindahl J. 2016. Hazard identification for assessment of the risk to human health associated with aflatoxin M1 in dairy value chain in Nairobi, Kenya. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development (AJFAND) 16(3): 11022-38.

Dang-Xuan S, Nguyen-Viet H, Unger F, Pham-Duc P, Grace D, Tran-Thi N, Barot M, Pham-Thi N, Makita K. 2016. Quantitative risk assessment of human salmonellosis in the smallholder pig value chains in urban of Vietnam. International Journal of Public Health . doi:10.1007/s00038-016-0921-x.

Oguttu JW, McCrindle CME, Makita K, Grace D. (2014) Investigation of the food value chain of ready-to-eat chicken and the associated risk for staphylococcal food poisoning in Tshwane Metropole, South Africa. Food Control 45: 87-94.

Kouamé-Sina SM, Bassa A, Makita K, Costard S, Grace D, Bonfoh B. (2014) Hazard identification and exposure assessment for bacterial risk assessment of informally-marketed milk in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Food Nutr Bullet, 33 (4), 223-234.

Bassa AY, Kouamé-Sina SM, Dadié A, Makita K, Grace D, Djè M, Bonfoh B. (2013) Contamination of raw milk with Bacillus cereus from farm to retail in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire and possible health implications. Dairy Sci. & Technol. (published online).
DOI 10.1007/s13594-013-0140-7.

Dessisa F, Makita K, Zewde G, Teklu A, Grace D. (2013) Raw milk consumption behaviour and assessment of its risk factors among dairy producers in urban and peri-urban areas of Debre Zeit, Ethiopia: Implication for public health, Int J Agr Sci.

Makita K, Desissa F, Akafete T, Zewde G, Grace D. (2012) Risk assessment of Staphylococcal poisoning due to consumption of informally-marketed milk and home-made yoghurt in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, Int J Food Microbiol, 153, 135-141.

Kouamé-Sina SM, Bassa A, Dadié A, Makita K, Grace D, Djè M, Bonfoh B. (2011) Analyse des risques microbiens du lait cru local à Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire). Rev Afri Santé Prod Ani, 8 N0S, 35-42.

Kouamé-Sina SM, Dadié A, Makita K, Grace D, Djè M, Taminiau B, Daube G, Bonfoh B. (2011) Diversity, phylogenetic relationship and antibacterial potential of Bifidobacterium species isolated from raw milk production chain in Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire), Afri J Microbiol Res, 5(21), 3394-3403.

Grace D, Makita K, Kang'ethe EK, Bonfoh B. (2011) Safe Food, Fair Food: Participatory Risk Analysis for improving the safety of informally produced and marketed food in sub Saharan Africa, Rev Afr Santé Prod Ani, 8 NOS, 3-11.



Invited presentations

Makita K. Milk and hygiene in international societies. Invited speech. Conference of Society of One World One Health, RGU, 2016 July 8, Ebetsu, Japan.

Makita K. International collaborative researches in Rakuno Gakuen University OIE Centre. Invited speech. Symposium ‘Young researchers challenging infectious disease control’, Nihon University, 2016 December 2, Kanagawa, Japan.

Makita K. Incentive-based improvement of food safety and zoonosis risks in sub-Saharan Africa. Japanese – Swiss EcoHealth Colloquium. JSPS. 2017 January 10-12, Swiss TPH, Basel, Switzerland.

Makita K. (2016) Fermentation to reduce food-borne pathogens. The FAO International Symposium on 'The role of agricultural biotechnologies in sustainable food systems and nutrition'. February 17, 2016. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Rome, Italy.

Makita K. (2013) Risk Analysis. Post-workshop training at the International Conference of EcoHealth, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, October 5.

Makita K et al. (2013) Food safety risk assessment in informal markets. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)/ Rakuno Gakuen University (RGU)/ Center for Public Health and Environmental Research (CENPHER), Hanoi School of Public Health Joint training course. Hanoi, Vietnam, 26 August- 12 September.



Presentations at international conferences

Shirima A, Makita K, Lindahl J, Grace D., et al. 2017. Assessment of risk to human health associated with aflatoxins in the Kenyan dairy value chain. FoodAfrica Annual Meeting, 2017, July 5, Nairobi, Kenya.

Makita K. A novel framework for decision making: Risk assessment for Salmonellosis through pork consumption in Vietnam, linked with system dynamics model. RGU OIE Seminar ‘Food Safety in Asia: in perspectives of food chain’, 2016 January 12, Ebetsu, Japan.

Sinh DX, Makita K, Hung NV, et al., 2016. Assessment and perspective of Vietnamese consumers’ pork handling and eating practices 1st joint AITVM-STVM conference, 2016 September, Berlin, Germany

Sinh DX., Hung NV., Phuc PD., Ngan TT., Thanh NT., Unger F., Makita K., Grace D. (2015) Hygiene and Microbial Contamination along the Pork Value Chain in Vietnam.4th Food Safety and Zoonoses Symposium for Asia Pacific.

Hung NV., Sinh DX., Hanh TTT., Phuc PD., Grace D., Unger F., Makita K. (2015) Risk-based approach for food safety applied to pork value chain in Vietnam. 5th Annual LCIRAH Research Conference.

Sirma A., Senerwa D., Lindahl J., Makita K., Kang’ethe E., Grace D. (2014) Aflatoxin M1 survey in dairy households in Kenya. Food Africa Midterm Seminar: Food and Nutrition security in Africa Seminar.

Makita K, Kang’ethe E, Zewde G, Kurwijila R, Matusse H, McCrindle C, Tano-Debrah KT, Bonfoh B, Costard S, Grace: Key messages from the safe food fair food project, The 13th International Symposium on Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, (2012)

Dos Muchangos AC, McCrindle CME, Matusse H, Makita K: Prerequisites for HACCP inpoultry processing in Maputo, Mozambique, The 13th International Symposium on Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, (2012)

Traoré SG, Costard S, Krabi R, Odermatt P, Utzinger J, Makita K, Grace D, Koussémon M, Bonfoh B: Assessment of exposure to Vibrio in shellfish consumed in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, The 13th International Symposium on Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, (2012)

Mahundi E, Karimuribo ED, Makita K, Toyomaki H, Ngowi HE, Grace D, Kurwijila LR: Quantitative assessment of the risk of acquiring campylobacteriosis from consumption of ready-to-eat beef in Arusha Municipality, Tanzania, The 13th International Symposium on Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, (2012)

Makita K, Kangethe E, Zewde G, Kurwijila L, Matusse H, McCrindle C, Tano-Debrah K, Bonfoh B, Grace D: Use of participatory methods in food safety risk analysis of informally marketed livestock products in sub Saharan Africa- advantages and challenges, The 1st
International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)

Sow I, Makita K, Bonfoh B, Grace D, Costard S: Investigation on the risk of brucellosis linked to the production and consumption of milk in rural Cinzana, Mali, The 1st International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)

Mahundi E, Karimuribo E, Kurwijila L, Makita K, Grace D: Food safety risk assessment of thermophilic Campylobacter and marketing channels of beef in Arusha municipality, Tanzania, The 1st International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)

Kasse FN, Makita K, Zarate AV, Siegmund-Schultze M, Kangethe E, Grace D: Choice of breeds and husbandary practices influencing the safety of milk and milk products in smallholder dairy farms in peri-urban Nairobi, focusing on brucellosis, The 1st International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)

Muchangos AD, McCrindle C, Matusse H, Makita K, Grace D: Prerequisites for HACCP in small-scale poultry production in Maputo, Mozambique, The 1
st International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)

van Zyl E, ○McCrindle C, Makita K, Grace D: Hazard identification and characterisation for quality control of biltong through application of appropriate microbiology and biotechnology methods, The 1st International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)

Kaiza K, Kurwijila L, Makita K, Grace D: Food safety in milk markets of smallholder farmers in Tanzania: a case study of peri-urban wards in Temeke, The 1st International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)

Heeb A, McCrindle C, Zarate AV, Makita K, Siegmund-Schultze M: Qualitative risk assessment of meat marketed by informal traders in South Africa, The 1st International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)

Dessisa F, Makita K, Teklu A, Zewde G, Grace D: Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus from informally marketed bovine milk in urban and peri-urban areas of Debre-Zeit, The 1st International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)

Desissa F, Makita K, Teklu A, Zewde G, Grace D: Raw milk consumption behavior and possible risk factors among dairy producers in urban and peri-urban areas of Debre Zeit: inplication for public health, The 1st International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)

Tano-Debrah K, Appiah J, Alpha MM, Makita K, Grace D: Qualitative assessment of Listeria monocytogenes exposure among consumers of milk in informal markets in Ghana, The 1st International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)

Appiah J, Tano-Debrah K, Alfa MM, Makita K, Grace D: Quantitative probabilistic assessment of the risk of listeriosis from the consumption of milk from informal markets in Ghana, The 1st International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)

Toyomaki H, Ishihara K, Sanka P, Kurwijila L, Grace D, Makita K: An estimation of thermophilic Campylobacter population in ready-to-eat roast beef and checken sold and hygiene practices of sellers in beer bars in Arusha, Tanzania, The 1st International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)

Mwai C, Makita K, Arimi S, Kangethe E, Grace D: Risk analysis of E. coli O157:H7 contamination of beef carcasses in slaughter houses in Nairobi, Kenya, The 1
st International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)

Molefe SM, McCrindle CME, Botha CJ, Makita K, Grace D: Situation analysis: Livestock and fisheries production and consumption in South Africa, The 1st
International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)

Molefe M, McCrindle C, Botha C, Makita K, Grace D: A critical review of food safety legislation and policy applicable to products of animal origin in South Africa, The 1st International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)

Ramraj S, McCrindle C, Heeb A, Makita K, Grace D: Participatory risk analysis to ensure food safety of edible offal from game meat, The 1st International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)

Molefe SM, McCrindle C, Botha C, Makita K, Grace D: Situation analysis on South African animal medicines, animal health and chemical residues in foodstuffs, The 1
st International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)

Ake-Assi Y, Biego GH, Koffi M, Kouame P, Bonfoh B, Makita K, Grace D: Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in traditionally smoked fish released for consumption in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, The 1st International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)

Kone BV, Fokou G, Makita K, Grace D, Gnabely Y, Bonfoh B: Social representation and perception of the quality of animal source food in Cinzana, Mali, The 1st International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)

Yobouet BA, Kouame SM, Dadie D, Makita K, Bonfoh B, Grace D: Bacillus cereus risk assessment in raw milk consumed in the informal dairy sector in Cote d'Ivoire, The 1st International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)

Kouame-Sina SM, Yobouet BA, Dadie A, Makita K, Grace D, Bonfoh B: Bacterial risk assessment in informally produced milk consumption in Cote d'Ivoire, The 1
st International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)

Traore SG, Krabi R, Costard S, Koussemon M, Bonfoh B, Makita K, Grace D: Riskfor Vibrio and paragonimus infections linked to shellfish consumption in Cote d'Ivoire, The 1st International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI), (2011)



Presentations at conferences in Japan

Koide K., Murata R., Khoa AX., Ly NK., Tam PT., Tra VTT., Nhiem DV., Kono H., Makita K. (2015) Causes of mastitis and repeat-breeding of dairy herds in a select dairy production area of Vietnam. Japan Society for Veterinary Epidemiology Conference.

Oguttu JW., Mccrindle C., Makita K. Grace D. (2014) Risk assessment for staphylococcal food poisoning due to consumption of ready-to-eat chicken sold in informal markets in Tshwane Metropole, South Africa. Japan Society for Veterinary Epidemiology.

Yokozawa T., Sinh DX., Hung NV., Lapar L., Makita K. (2014) A study of Salmonella prevalence in pig food chain from pig slaughterhouses to markets in Hung Yen, Vietnam. Japan Society for Veterinary Medical Science.

茅野大志,蒔田浩平,Grace D,Kang’ethe E:ケニア国におけるカビ毒に汚染された乳製品の摂取による健康被害のリスク評価,獣医学会 (2013).

茅野大志,Mwai CW, Kangethe E,Grace D, 蒔田浩平: ケニヤ国ナイロビの食肉処理場における牛屠体の大腸菌 O157 汚染率ベイズ推計,獣医学会 (2012).

豊巻治也,Mahundi Edgar,石原加奈子,Kurwijila Lusato,Grace Delia,蒔田浩平:タンザニア国アルーシャの調理済み販売牛肉の消費によるカンピロバクター食中毒のリスク評価,獣医疫学学術集会 (2011).

Makita K, Grace D, Randolph TF, Baker D, Staal S : ILRI/BMZ Safe Food Fair Food: Building
capacity to improve the safety of animal-source foods and ensure continued market access for poor
farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. 獣医疫学会学術集会 (2010).



Reports

蒔田浩平:アフリカ大陸における、都市化と動物由来食品を介した人獣共通感染症のリスクに関する研究-獣医疫学による、医学と社会経済学への架け橋,北海道獣医師会雑誌,54, 249-252, (2010).

Extension activities
Makita K: Participatory food safety risk assessment for informal value chains. Two weeks training course. Japan Student Service Organization (JASSO) Rakuno Gakuen University Tropical Veterinary Public Health Program, 3rd-12th September, 2012 (2012)

Makita K, Bonfoh B, Toyofuku H: The front line of food safety risk assessment. Small symposium.
Rakuno Gakuen University, 10th September 2012, (2012)

Makita K, Grace D : Food safety risk analysis training course. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia, (2010)

Rakuno Gakuen University Veterinary Epidemiology(2014.05.16)|
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